If it moos, oinks, bleats, or clucks it probably lives on a farm. And these farm animals eat a variety of different things. So how does a farmer know what to feed each animal? How do they decided what amounts to feed them? Does an animal’s diet change throughout the animal’s life? Just like humans need different types of food, and in different amounts, so do animals.
To help answer these questions I contacted an animal nutritionist. He specializes in animal nutrition and is especially concerned with the dietary needs of livestock animals.
Role of an Animal Nutritionist
Stewart Galloway is a field nutritionist with Hubbard Feeds. He helps farmers, salespeople, and dealers understand and use the right products when feeding their livestock.
Animal nutritionists can help farmers in many ways, and have different career paths open to them. Some animal nutritionists work for a company that creates animal feed. Their work may include working with numbers, collecting and reviewing lots of research data, and developing nutrition profiles for various animals at different stages of their life. Other animal nutritionists may work as an independent consultant where they interact directly with the farmer customers. This type of role offers lots of flexibility and sometimes travel. Stewart visits livestock producers from Kansas to Pennsylvania. Over time, this industry has become 100% specialized which means there are not many general nutritionists.
Stewart says that working with farmers is the best part of his job because he gets to help them solve problems. There are a great number of details that go into creating the perfect recipe for livestock. He uses technology to help people meet four specific goals: increase profit, improve competitive advantage, decrease risk, and make their lives easier.
Day in the Life of an Animal Nutritionist
Each day, Stewart is problem solving for his farmer customers. Stewart says in his job, “you need to be a person who likes working with a variety of people.”
Some of his duties that he might perform each day include:
- Formulating diets – Just like you use a recipe to make a food dish, it’s important to get the right ingredients, weights, and mix the right amounts for animal feed. Each animal has varied nutritional needs so an animal nutritionist reviews the food labels and measures the right amount of each ingredient for specific animal types. Food labels contain the amounts of calories, fat, protein, sugar, vitamins, and sugars.
- Teaching in front of groups of farmers and completing dealer training.
- Writing articles for various communications media such as extension publications, email, and print trade magazines.
- Developing decision making tools spreadsheets and dashboards for producers.
- Creating educational webinars that can be viewed by producers across the country.
- Conducting meetings with farmers to set goals or check in on their farm animals’ progress, and making feed adjustments as needed.
He says it really helps to be proactive and evaluate any feeding plans a livestock owner has in place. “Animals have a perfect opportunity for good health and nutrition because they don’t have the bad eating habits that some humans do,” he said. One great thing about feeding livestock is animal nutritionists can determine scientifically what animals should eat and predict how they should grow. Stewart mentioned that the genetics in animals now are so good, “we can’t get enough nutrition into them to make them grow as fast as they are capable.”
One surprising thing I learned about Stewart’s job is that he spends little time with the animals. He works with a team of specialists who are actually in the barns. This is not just due to COVID, however. For many years the hog industry has been concerned with biosecurity, and not been able to allow many people to visit in and out of the barns. One of the best ways farmers can keep their animals healthy is by practicing good biosecurity procedures. For more information on biosecurity and its importance, view one of our past blog posts on the topic.
What Kind of Education is Needed?
While in school, Stewart decided he liked animals more than plants, so he went to Iowa State University for Agriculture Studies and gained a diverse agriculture background. After obtaining a master’s degree and a PhD, he went to work in the feed industry. While a master’s degree or Ph.D. is not an absolute requirement, it is more common for individuals in this career field to pursue graduate degrees. A graduate degree is usually required to work in research positions or to secure management or other upper-level roles. Many aspiring animal nutritionists pursue graduate veterinary degrees so they can care for animals in all aspects of their health and nutrition.
If you want more information on what different animals eat, check out this blog Fueling the Body. You will learn what different kinds of fuel people and farm animals need to be healthy and productive.