Hello! My name is Alyson McCarty and I am the new Education Programs Intern for this upcoming year.
I was born and raised in Connecticut along the coastline of Long Island Sound. During my high school career, I had the amazing opportunity to volunteer at our local zoo. That program allowed me to spend my summers learning about a variety of animals and the care they require as well as educating visitors on the animals at the zoo. Getting to work hands-on with some of the animals was a major stepping stone in my future goals and passion for animals.
I am currently in my third year at Iowa State University where I am double majoring in Agricultural Education and Animal Ecology. At Iowa State I am currently a member of the Student Admissions Representatives (STARS) and give bi-weekly tours to prospective students and families. Additionally, I am a member of the Dairy Science Club and serve on multiple committees within the club.
My future career goals are to one day become an Agriculture Educator and run a successful agriculture program at the high school level. Having grown up without a strong agricultural background I was able to experience the positive impacts that learning about agriculture can have on someone. I hope to one day be able to pass my newfound passion for agriculture to the next generation.
I am excited to begin my journey in Agricultural Education and assist in showing the importance of agriculture in our world. I am also excited to begin creating connections with both students and educators from around Iowa. I am excited for the experiences I will gain in this next year and the connections I will make along the way.
Fun fact about me: While at the zoo I was able to help catch and tag geese to be able to track them.
Favorite thing at Iowa State: Making ice cream with the Dairy Science Club on Fridays
The first time I saw a lavender farm was on the Fruit Loop, a 35-mile area around Hood River, Oregon. My now husband and I were on a West Coast road trip and found ourselves in this beautiful region surrounded by agriculture and agritourism. The Fruit Loop contained stops along backroads where you could pick your own berries, enjoy apples, honey, eat a pie, and so much more! But there’s one farm I’m often reminded of when I reach for the honey jar. The farm had fields of lavender shrubs lined up in rows. Their purple blooms were framed with a mountainous view that could take your breath away. In corners of the fields tucked away you could see hives loaded with bees waiting for the opportunity to forage.
Next to the fields was a shop that sold lavender products such as oil, lotion, soaps, and culinary treats. As an herb, lavender is often used in cooking, or by-products of lavender can be used in cooking. Honey made primarily from lavender nectar or pollen has a unique flavor that sets it apart from other honeys. Lavender honey has soft undertones of the lavender plant itself. However, to get this flavor in honey takes planning as honeybees will travel up to 6.5 miles from their hive to find flowers in bloom. Therefore, many lavender farms in Oregon will have their own hives. With their own hives they can better control what the bees are pollinating, allowing them to capitalize on the unique flavor that is captured in honey made from lavender.
Where is Lavender Farmed?
Though Oregon produces the most lavender in the U.S., you can find lavender farms in Iowa. The Loess Hills of Iowa are located on the western edge of the state, and they are perfect for lavender production because of the area’s topography and soil. Lavender flourishes in dry, well-drained, sandy or gravelly soils in full sun. Located on the western side of Iowa, the Loess Hills contain gentle sloping that naturally drains water. All types of lavender need good air circulation around their roots. If there is too much water, root rot and fungus can become a problem.
Loess is a soil made up of mostly fine silt particles that were carried by winds that went through during and after glacial periods. Iowa’s Loess Hills were developed by riverbed sediment that blew out of the Missouri River. The mixture of the physical properties of the soil along with the chemical properties help it to hold onto nutrients. This causes the soil to be fertile for lavender and other crops.
Lavender and Its Types
Lavender is often grown from cuttings rather than seed. A plant cut is essentially a clone of the parent plant which reduces variation guaranteeing a consistent product (color, quality, oil production, etc.). Though it takes approximately three years for the cutting to mature, propagating from a cutting increases the chance survival as well as reduces the amount of time from planting to harvest.
There are 30 species of lavender that break down into hundreds of varieties. The type of lavender that is grown is determined not only by soil type, but also climate, hardiness zone, and product goal. A hardiness zone is a location where plants will be able to grow and withstand the average high and low temperatures of an area. Four types of lavender are:
English Lavender grows 2-3 feet tall and wide. It blooms with purple flowers in late June to August. It is a cold-hardy plant that prefers non-acidic (>7pH) soils. The sweet fragrance is ideal for culinary use and is also used in soaps, perfume, as well as dried and placed into sachets or used as decoration.
Fern Leaf Lavender grows approximately 2 feet tall and wide. It blooms blue to purple flowers from May to November and grows best in hot dry areas. This lavender is often used in cooking, soaps, scents, and potpourri.
French Lavender grows 2-3 feet tall and wide. The flowers are purple and bloom from June to August. This lavender does not do well with cold and prefers warm climates. It is often used for decoration, soaps, and perfume.
Spanish Lavender is used for cooking, soaps, perfumes, and lotions. As a smaller lavender shrub that is 1.5-2 feet tall and 2-3 feet wide, it has purple blooms that occur in mid to late summer. This plant does well in full sun and dry conditions with well-draining soil. However, it does not thrive well in cold climates.
Lavendula x intermedia is a hybrid lavender that crosses L. augustifolia and L. latifolia. These large plants produce long floral spikes and are grown solely for essential oil production.
Connecting to Education
Though a simple specialty crop, there is a lot to learn about lavender and its production in Iowa. Consider visiting one with students like Loess Hills Lavender Farm or Iowa Lavender. Help extend the learning by connecting to lavender using these resources:
2 ¼ c all-purpose flour 1Tbs finely ground Earl Grey tea (~3 tea bags) ½ tsp culinary-grade lavender ½ tsp baking powder ¼ tsp baking soda ½ tsp kosher salt 1 ¼ c. granulated sugar 1 c. unsalted butter 1 large egg 2 tsp vanilla extract
Prep oven and pans. Pre-heat oven to 350 degrees F
In medium bowl, whisk flour, Earl Grey tea, lavender, baking powder, baking soda, and salt
In a standing mixer with paddle attachment, combine sugar and butter. Beat on medium-high speed until light and fluffy. Scrape down sides. Reduce the speed to low and add the egg and vanilla and beat until combined. Scape down the bottom and sides of the bowl. With the mixer on low, add dry ingredients and beat until combined, scraping down the sides of the bowl every 30 seconds.
Scoop cookie dough onto a baking sheet. Place cookie dough balls ~3 inches apart. Bake for 12 minutes or until the edges are golden brown. Let cool then serve.
When farmers today want to plant their crop fields, they buy seeds. Was this always the case? Why do they buy seeds? Is there something special about the seeds they buy? Let’s walk through it together!
Historical Seed Sources
Let’s go way back to the beginning. Farming began as a practice in the Neolithic Era when people started collecting seeds from plants they were gathering, and purposefully put them in specific areas. This kept people more grounded in one location, and made their food supply more controllable. This process of harvesting what you need to use and then setting aside extra to plant the next year became common for centuries. Some people still do this today! Have you ever kept a couple extra potatoes from the bottom of your potato bag to plant in your garden in the spring? You have, too!
When collecting seed from crops was the main practice, farmers would keep seeds from specific crops that did well. A good example of this is corn. The native crop, teosinte, had extremely small ears with very tough and difficult-to-use kernels. Indigenous folks in teosinte’s native region slowly and purposefully kept (selected) seeds from teosinte that were from desirable plants that offered improved traits such as larger ears and easier-to-use kernels. This process of artificial selection brought us early corn!
The Hybridization Boom
In the 20th century, a new phenomenon was starting to be harnessed in the world of crops: hybrid vigor. This concept basically means that when you take two varieties of one species and breed them together, the offspring performs better than either parent would suggest. For example, if you crossbreed a breed of dog that commonly has joint issues with a breed of dog that commonly has breathing issues, the offspring may be larger and healthier than both parents. The same concept works with livestock and crops!
Here in Iowa, one of the pioneers of this concept was Henry A. Wallace. He went on to found a hybrid corn seed company that eventually became Pioneer Hi-Bred, now Corteva Agriscience.
Second Generation Hybrid Crops
Ok, so hybrid crops became more commonplace because they outperformed other open-pollinated varieties that folks were collecting from their own farm. But then why didn’t the farmers keep the seeds from the first year hybrid crop yield? Unfortunately, it doesn’t quite work like that.
What makes hybrid crops so interesting is that they’re so uniform. We know what parent A and parent B are, so we know what their offspring will be. But when the first generation open-pollinates itself, the offspring are much less uniform. It’s not that the seeds won’t grow or that the plants are sterile, it’s more that you have lost that initial hybrid vigor of breeding two different varieties together. In a crop field, this could look like corn plants of many different heights or different abilities to fight off disease. The crop field could simply end up less uniform.
The chart to the right can help illustrate this. The first generation (F1) has a predictable genetic makeup (genotype) as well as predictable physical characteristics (phenotype). However, if it were to self-pollinate, its offspring (F2 generation) would be much less predictable due to the variety in its genetic background.
Does Genetic Engineering Have Anything To Do With This?
Yes and no.
Genetic engineering isn’t a term that’s really regulated, but you could call it the scientific intervention of a plant on a DNA level instead of at the plant level (like with cross-breeding). There have been different ways that this can be done, but essentially a plant breeder will be able to isolate a gene that is either good or bad for a plant and add, delete, or shut off the expression of that gene.
Having the ability to change specific genes can increase the development of a plant’s trait. For example, if there is one specific variety of corn that has poor yield, but is more drought resistant, scientists can identify and isolate that trait to incorporate into a variety that has better performance. This leads to a better-performing crop with improved drought resistance and none of the negative attributes from the parent plant.
Now, if a parent crop has engineered traits, its offspring will have those same traits. However, many engineered traits in crop seeds are copyrighted material, making it illegal to use without permission. These technologies, the research involved, and even down to the time it takes to go through regulations, is a very lengthy and expensive process. For that reason, legally, if using genetically engineered crops, you do need to purchase new seed each year.
But in addition to that, most, if not all, crop seed varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) are also hybrid, meaning that even if the offspring does have the GE trait, it wouldn’t perform as uniformly as the initial seed once did.
So, in short, GE traits would be passed down to future generations, but those traits must be used with permission, and also that offspring wouldn’t perform as desired anyway.
Is this true for all crops?
Partially yes, partially no!
The rules for GE crop seed would hold true to all GE crop seeds (unless the patent was forfeited to be used for humanitarian needs, like golden rice). However, there is a pretty limited amount of GE crops on the market right now. Farmers that produce corn, soybeans, and cotton will likely purchase hybrid, GE crop seed each year.
However, with the new boom of cover crops, more farmers are keeping seed from their last year’s cover crops to seed the field next year. When farmers do this, they will often call the seed bin-run. Cover crops in Iowa might be plants like rye. The goal of this rye crop isn’t necessarily to have the best rye crop or the most uniform rye crop, it’s to protect the soil. So, saving money by keeping some seed back can make sense for some producers!
Virginia Hanson, an Agriculture Communications Associate Teaching Professor at Iowa State University, was raised on a multi-generational dairy farm in Walton, New York. After graduating high school, she continued her education in college where she earned her bachelor’s and master’s of English. Hanson taught grade school before advancing her career to the community college level. While instructing community college, Hanson enjoyed helping her students determine where they were academically and help them obtain new goals. After teaching at the community college level, Hanson decided to maneuver her career into agriculture communications due to the opportunity to continually learn new science. When applying for the new position, there was a full circle feeling due to her background and summer break jobs in extension.
Positions that helped Hanson reach her current job are teaching in both grade school and community colleges and being involved in community activities. The background in teaching aligned with what the agriculture communications department was lacking at the time of her hiring. Community events such as on a board involved in food cooperative and community gardens allowed her to hear what people were concerned about related to the agriculture industry. Hanson is on her way to becoming a professor, but the process has many roles and requirements that must be fulfilled.
Hanson’s day-to-day is flexible which allows her to be a mom at the same time. There are days that are completely spent in the classroom and others where she is answering emails or meeting with advisees. Meetings are a regular occurrence throughout the year as she represents the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences staff in the faculty senate. She regularly meets with the Dean and the chairs from all colleges with Iowa State University. Similar to other educators, she spends time grading assignments and writing letters of recommendation. She also serves as the advisor for the Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow club. Hanson enjoys how intertwined her work and personal life have become. This allows her to grade assignments at home or leave work early to go to her kid’s sports game. Hanson’s favorite part of being an Associate Teaching Professor is “walking into a classroom of 25 new faces and telling myself, ‘This semester is going to be better than last.'”
Qualities that are important to become a college professor are being satisfied with not always knowing the outcome. Hanson has taught a class at Iowa State 33 times, and she doesn’t hear back from the majority of those students. Not knowing if the subjects taught made a difference in the student’s life is difficult as there is no measurable or tangible aspect after the course concludes. Another skill that is important in this field is the ability to listen. There are many students that just want someone to be there and listen when they need it most.
Some classroom subjects that apply to becoming a professor in agriculture communications is English and Science. English is the basis of communication, whether written articles, oral skills, working with groups of people, or engaging with others around you. These aspects are all important in the field and years of English preparation can relate to beneficial skills in the field. Science is an important factor in agriculture communications, but most can learn these topics much faster.
Hanson’s biggest accomplishment is working to make agriculture communications a stand-alone major, at Iowa State University. Currently agriculture communication is an option under another degree. Hanson believes this major will grow the program’s numbers significantly. There has been progress with other colleges to start certificate programs that will transfer to the degree requirements. “All we need is the name Agricultural Communications as a major. We have the club, we have the students, we’ve got the professors, we’ve got the courses,” stated Hanson. The greatest challenge professors are currently facing is how divided our world has become with stances on various issues. Working to bridge the gap and help people learn more about agriculture is something Hanson is striving to do.
Hanson’s advice to students interested in this field is to start out being a tutor to see if those aspects still interest you. Another way is taking college education courses throughout different areas, such as early childhood, middle or high school, or college. Reaching out to current teachers in various areas about what they do and why they chose the field could also be a great way to start. Agriculture communications is everchanging as agriculture never stops innovating and communication platforms are ever evolving.
October in National Pork Month, or as some call it ‘Porktober.’ It’s a great opportunity to celebrate one of our state’s highest exports – pork. Iowa is the number one pork-producing state in the U.S. and the top state for pork exports, according to the Iowa Pork Producers Association. Annually, farmers in our state raise nearly 24 million pigs at any one time. That means nearly one-third of the nation’s hogs are raised in Iowa.
Pork Nutrition Facts
Pork is packed with nutrition. The Institute of Medicine suggests that about 10-35 percent of your day’s total daily calories should come from protein; and of that protein, they recommend about 20-30 grams per meal to help maintain muscle mass and function. Pork is packed full of protein plus many of the nutrients our bodies need to function. It contains all nine essential amino acids necessary for your body’s growth and maintenance.
Watching your heart health? Today’s pork has about 16 percent less fat and 27 percent less saturated fat as compared to 30 years ago. Pork tenderloin and pork sirloin roast meet the criteria for the American Heart Association Heart Checkmark, which means they contain less than five grams of fat, two grams or less of saturated fat, and 480 milligrams or less of sodium per label serving. Pork is packed with protein, making it easy to include in a balanced diet.
How much protein is in pork?
Which cut of pork should you choose?
You understand the benefit of adding pork to your diet but what cut of pork should you choose? There are many different types of pork cuts available.
Cuts of pork
Pork tenderloin – This savory cut is as lean as boneless, skinless chicken breast. Pork chops – Pork chops are the most popular cut of pork. Pork ribs – There are many kinds of pork ribs from back ribs to rip tips. Pork loin roast – These are sold either bone-in or deboned. Pork shoulder – This cut goes by many names in the grocery store – picnic roast, blade roast, and more. Ground pork – Ground pork is a versatile choice that soaks up any flavor you add to it. Bacon – The versatility of bacon makes it a good choice for many recipes. Ham – Whether it’s in a sandwich or the main dish for a holiday, ham offers a tasty choice for any meal. Pork belly – Pork belly is from the underside after the loin and spareribs are removed. Pork rib roast – This is also referred to as a rack of pork or cut pork loin. This type contains more fat, which makes it flavorful. Pork steak – These are quick-cooking, popular cuts perfect for grilling. Sausage – Sausage is seasoned ground pork and comes from a variety of cuts.
Time to eat! Easy Pulled Pork Recipe
One of my family’s favorite pork recipes is an easy, quick meal for busy school nights – pulled pork sandwiches. We enjoy this recipe from the Iowa Pork Producers Association.
1 – 4-5 lb pork shoulder
Pork seasoning/rub of choice
½ cup chicken broth
1 – 12 oz can cola
½ – 1 cup barbeque sauce
Remove pork shoulder from the package. Liberally season with your favorite rub. Place in the slow cooker.
Pour the chicken broth and the cola over the pork.
Cook on low for 8 hours (or high for 5-6 hours) or until the pork is tender and easy to pull.
Remove the shoulder from the slow cooker and shred the meat. Stir in barbeque sauce of choice and enjoy alone or on a bun.
The Iowa Pork Producers Association has a new curriculum to help teachers educate their students about agriculture, specifically the swine industry. Through Destination Pork, students can gain a deeper understanding of the industry, its many opportunities, and how they can further career options. It’s great for general agriculture or animal science study. Access the free curriculum on the U.S. Pork Center of Excellence website.
Days are beginning to grow shorter, the wind cooler, and trees are beginning to decorate the horizon with color. The signs of fall often mean harvest and many farmers have begun to head to the field to reap the rewards of their spring plantings. Though many crops are done for the year, there is one Iowa crop that is being planted just in time to ward off vampires, garlic.
Garlic is a root vegetable within the onion family that is grown on many Iowa vegetable farms and is often used as a flavor enhancer in cooking. Garlic is a main staple in my household. Anytime we prepare a meal we include either onions or garlic. Fresh, minced, cooked, sautéed, or thrown in, a meal is not complete without an onion or garlic. So, of course I jumped on the chance to attend a garlic workshop hosted by my public library and local garlic expert Gary Guthrie (Growing Harmony Farms, Nevada, Iowa).
As I walked into the workshop my nose was met with a smell that would make even the most veteran vampire cringe. Memories of bread, spaghetti, and warmth met me at the door. Walking to my seat, I took in the variety of garlic heads that decorated the tables, and the other eager learners that would be participating in learning how to grow and prepare garlic.
Growing Garlic in Iowa
Choosing your crop
The first step of growing any crop is choosing the right variety for your soil, location, and time. Garlic is a unique vegetable that is a bulb made up of multiple cloves. Just how there are different breeds of dogs, there are different varieties of garlic (more than 700!). Garlic is broken into two main categories: soft neck and hard neck. The neck of the garlic refers to the stem (or stalk) that is produced during growth and flowering. Hard neck garlic tends to have fewer cloves that are larger and is cold tolerant. In Iowa, hard neck garlic is grown readily due to Iowa’s colder winters. In contrast, soft neck garlic has smaller cloves and a longer shelf life making it the variety most often sold in grocery stores.
If you want to use garlic for culinary dishes the flavor profile also impacts the garlic variety planted. Each variety has its own flavor profile ranging from a mild garlic to spicy/hot garlic. Bogatyr is a hard neck variety that has a fiery bite that will make your eyes water (or at least it did mine) with a smooth finish. The Russian Giant, when eaten raw has a spicy earthy flavor that tingles your nose and reminds you of a sneeze. If you’re looking for a milder garlic like the soft neck garlic found in a grocery store, I’d suggest the German Extra Hardy.
Garlic is a slow growing crop that needs time to mature and planting in the fall (Oct.-Nov.) allows this time. Growing from seed is difficult and it is more common to plant cloves in well-drained fertile soil. Cloves for planting should be 1-1.5 inches, and the larger the clove, the larger the bulb produced. After the cloves are planted (~3 inches down) you’ll want to cover them in mulch (straw is suggested by Guthrie) to help the soil hold heat throughout the winter. This allows for the perfect soil temperature for garlic to put down roots.
Though I would encourage you to experience the bite a sliver of raw garlic gives, one of my favorite ways to prepare it is roasting. Roasting garlic transforms the flavor profile from hot into a more mellow sweet-savory that can add depth to any dish.
4-8 large heads of garlic
Oven safe dish with cover
Peel away a few of the papery outer layers of the garlic head while keeping the bulb intact. Slice about ½ inch off the top, just enough to expose the cloves.
Place the garlic cut side up in your oven safe dish. Drizzle with olive oil. You may sprinkle with salt or fresh herbs if you’d like.
Cover the dish and place it into the oven at 400 degrees for 45minutes-1 hour, or until the tops of the cut bulbs are golden brown. Remove and let rest until cool.
Remove the garlic cloves by squeezing them out of the bulb.
Use the roasted garlic on bread, mix it in with butter, mashed potatoes or even soup.
There are multiple flavors of garlic.
This plant is a “hungry plant” and needs a lot of fertilizer.
Garlic takes up little space.
18 heads of garlic would be enough for a family that really, really likes garlic.
Each year, the Iowa Agriculture Literacy Foundation (IALF) honors Iowa’s agriculture industry and its commodities including corn, soybeans, pork, and eggs through our Big Four cooking competition at the Iowa State Fair. “We invite aspiring chefs of all ages from across Iowa to showcase their culinary skills in two different divisions, sweet or savory, they can get as creative as they like and the only requirement is to use at least two of the big four Iowa commodity ingredients or a by-product of them,” stated IALF Executive Direction, Kelly Foss.
This year’s entries were judged by commodity organization experts, Anne Rehnstrom (Iowa Pork Producers Association), Carrie Dodds (Iowa Corn Growers Association), and Lydia Zerby (Iowa Soybean Association). Foss admitted that “we had fun watching the judges as their eyes lit up with each tasty entry, this year the winner of the sweet category was a warm comfort food and got the judges nodding their heads and clamoring for more.”
5 strips of bacon, fried and cut into bite-sized pieces
6 eggs, divided
¼ cup of Baker’s sugar
1 cup of pure Maple syrup
2 ½ cups of half & half
1 teaspoon cinnamon
¼ teaspoon ground nutmeg
2-3 tablespoons of bourbon
Arrange bread on a cookie sheet and place in 250°F oven for 10 minutes, just enough to dry out the bread. Cut bread into bite-sized pieces. When dry, increase oven temperature to 350°F. Butter a cast iron skillet and set aside.
Beat the eggs and sugar until light. Add cream and other ingredients, but only half the syrup. Mix ½ cup syrup and bourbon and pour over bread. Distribute bacon pieces on top of the bread and then pour the egg mixture over bread, making sure that all the bread is covered. Allow to set about 30 minutes or longer so that bread can absorb the egg-cream mixture.
Bake at 375°F for 50 minutes or until the pudding is brown and a knife comes out clean.
¼ cup Maple syrup
¼ cup salted butter
1 cup brown sugar
½ cup heavy whipping cream
1 teaspoon bourbon vanilla extract
2 tablespoons of Woodford Reserve Bourbon
Warm the syrup and add the butter. Watching carefully add the brown sugar, bourbon and vanilla extract. When mixture comes to a boil, add the cream. Then turn heat down and continue to cook for 5 more minutes.
Note from the Cook: Bread pudding is the ultimate second-chance food. It allows you to repurpose bread, cake and pastries with yummy egg-cream custard. For this recipe, I had a third cup of mango-peach-ginger compote leftover. It struck me that with some bourbon and cream, it would make a fitting sauce. This particular recipe has evolved over the past several years. I have used apples, raisins, and cherries, but my family prefers the peach.
Iowa’s Big Four Winners – Savory Category
The savory category winner in this year’s cooking contest is Cowboy Cornbread Salad Cups made by Ann Gillotti of Ankeny. As Ann states, “This is a great eye-catching salad for your next picnic or potluck and features all of Iowa’s Big Four ingredients – corn, bacon, soybeans (in the mayo), and eggs!” Iowa Girl Breakfast Egg Rolls submitted by Brooklynn Sedlock of Indianola received second place. Jamie Buelt of Polk City received third place with her Iowa Celebration Corn Salad.
15 oz box Cornbread Mix
1/2 cup Unsalted Butter, melted
1 cup Shredded Cheddar Cheese
2/3 cup Whole Milk
1 Large Egg
2 Small Jalapenos, diced
Preheat oven to 375°F. Spray an 8-inch baking pan with nonstick spray and set aside. In a large bowl, whisk together cornbread mix, milk, butter, and egg until moistened. Stir in cheese and jalapenos. Pour mixture into prepared pan. Bake for 25-30 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean. Let cool completely and then crumble into pieces to make 2 cups for salad.
1 packet Dry Ranch Dressing Mix
1 cup Buttermilk
1 clove Garlic
1 cup Mayonnaise
1 cup Cilantro Leaves
Add all ingredients in a blender and run on medium speed for 2-3 minutes until smooth and creamy. Refrigerate until ready to assemble the salad.
15 oz can Sweet Corn kernels, drained
1 small Red Onion, diced
1 Tomato, chopped
1 cup Cilantro Ranch
1 teaspoon Chili Powder
1/2 lbs. Bacon, cooked and crumbled
14 oz can Pinto Beans, rinsed and drained
1 Green Bell Pepper, diced
1 cup Shredded Cheddar Cheese
1 teaspoon Smoked Paprika
1/4 cup Green Onion, chopped
2 cups Crumbled Cornbread
8-9 oz cups for serving
Combine the cilantro ranch, paprika, and chili powder, set aside. Add 1/4 cup of cornbread to the bottom of each cup. Add a layer of pinto beans, corn, onion, peppers, and tomatoes to each cup. Top each cup with 2 tablespoons of ranch mixture and 2 tablespoons of cheese. Add 1-2 tablespoons of crumbled bacon and garnish with green onion. Cover and refrigerate for at least 2 hours before serving.
Milo Locker Meats in Milo, Iowa, is owned and operated by Angie and Darrell Goering. At their locker they process deer, cattle, and hogs. While they process typical animals for Iowa, they set themselves apart from other lockers through their grocery section. Another way they distinguish themselves from other lockers is through their schedule accommodations for deer and county fair seasons. During the weeks of their surrounding county fairs, Milo Locker Meats clears their schedule for those 4-H and FFA animals. In December, they block off the whole month for deer processing.
After an early retirement, Darrell bought the locker that originally was across the street, later designing and building the locker they processes in today. Darrell learned how to properly cut and process meat from the previous owners and once he figured out the trade, he started independently processing meat for sale. He has continued to learn as new endeavors and ideas have been brought forth as the demand has changed over time. Angie entered the locker when her and Darrell got married. She now is the manager of the office, which is essential to an efficient and effective business. While Angie manages the bills, phones, marketing, and so much more, Darrell manages the processing aspect of the locker.
While purchasing a locker may not be an option for everyone, there are many job areas within the business. An entry-level position for a high school student would be assisting with the sanitation process. This position is vital to a lockers success as meat types cannot be cross contaminated; it could result in consumers becoming ill. At this level, there is also the job of loading out meat to consumers. Those that fulfill this job learn the locations of freezers and meat within those freezers. This position also includes a large amount of communication skills as they will be directly speaking with customers. While speaking with customers, employees listen for any questions or concerns that need to be answered or resolved prior to the customer leaving. Another entry-level position is the harvest floor, there the employee will remove the animal byproducts to maintain sanitation in the area.
The positions in the processing room are available after an employee has graduated with a high school diploma or obtains a GED. In this section of the meat processing the jobs of de-boning the meat, stuffers, wrappers, and labelers are needed. These positions do not require any further degrees or experience as employees learn these machines while on the job. Although further degrees are not required, the willingness to work and have pride in a job well done are necessary.
While the previously listed jobs are all in the meat processing sector of a locker, there are also positions within the retail and office side of the business as well. An office manager is the position that Angie holds. As mentioned before, she answers calls, oversees the financials, markets products, oversees retail area, and interacts with the public in various settings. Employees that assist office managers are holding the position of office assistant. The other position held in the office is the retailers. These employees ensure that the retail section of the locker is stocked and arranged for customers.
The classroom connections in this field relate to math and communication skills. Communication skills are vital for retailers, office assistants, office managers, and those loading out meat as they are speaking directly with the customers. This interaction provides the opportunity to answer any questions or resolve any concerns that the consumers may have. Those processing the meat must be precise with their math skills as they are weighing the meat that is later packaged by weight. If these amounts are inaccurate a customer they could be not enough or too much given to the customers.
Some of my earliest memories are of riding in our camper and pulling into the Iowa State Fair to show our horses. I always knew when we passed by the Anderson Erickson cows that we were almost there. A lot has changed since I was a kid, but one thing hasn’t – the importance of agriculture to the state of Iowa. The Iowa State Fair is one large celebration of our Iowa’s agriculture industry and the important role it plays in our daily lives and economy.
There are lots of ways to enjoy the Iowa State Fair but I love that it provides an opportunity to take my children around to teach them more about agriculture. Here are a few of our favorite stops!
Avenue of the Breeds
From elk to horses and sheep to fish, this is the place to see 100 different breeds and approximately 120 different animals of all kinds. You’ll see breeds here that you can’t see anywhere else at the fair. Each breed has its own unique benefits and purpose. When they’re side by side it’s amazing to see all the differences. Representatives are available in the hallways to ask questions about the animals. The Avenue of the Breeds is located west of the 4-H Building.
This is a place where the kids get a chance to get their hands dirty and become a farmer. Kids will plant, grow, harvest, and sell their produce just like a farmer. They’ll get a basket and proceed along a path that includes a garden, grain bin, apple orchard, chicken coop, tractor shed, sheep barn, and dairy barn. After gathering items along the way they’ll get the chance to sell these items at the Farmers’ Market and spend their money at the grocery store.
Milk a Cow at the Milking Parlor
Learn how cows are milked at the Milking Parlor, which is located on the north side of the Cattle barn. You’ll learn all you want about a cow’s life on a dairy farm. Once you’re done, enjoy an ice cream cone at the Dairy Barn nearby.
Meet Baby Animals at the Animal Learning Center
Get up close and personal with all kinds of farm babies from ducklings and calves to piglets and chicks. You never know what you might see in the Animal Learning Center including animal babies being born. There are veterinary students on hand to oversee the animals so it’s a great opportunity to ask questions about animals, veterinary sciences, and agriculture. The Animal Learning Center is located south of the Little Hands on the Farm.
How Does Your Garden Grow?
My garden is brown and dead so maybe I need a trip to The Garden at the Iowa State Fair to get some help. Kids can learn how a garden grows. This area is full of garden beds and displays to teach kids how vegetables take root in Iowa soil and grow. There is also a special composting exhibit that teaches the value of ecology and sustainability. The Garden is located north of the Little Hands on the Farm.
IALF Activities at the Fair
If you’re at the fair on certain days, you’ll have a chance to see agriculture learning in action. IALF has two main activities at the fair this year.
Big Four Cooking Competition
Wednesday, Aug. 17, 1:30 p.m., Elwell Food Building
IALF honors Iowa’s agriculture industry and its biggest commodities of corn, soybeans, pork, and eggs, through this cooking contest each year. Stop by to see our judges determine the winners this year!
STEM Day at the Fair
Sunday, Aug. 21 from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m., Grand Concourse
Join us to learn more about biodegradable packing peanuts with hands-on activities.
There is a ton of agriculture learning that can happen at the fair if you just look for it. What are some of your favorite agricultural learning activities at the fair?
Last week I was driving in Ames near Iowa State University. As I drove by the outskirts of the campus, there were pieces of land broken into small sections. Each section had a crop growing, some were covered with nets, others had small signs in front of them, while some had been roped off from the other sections. These sections of land are known as “test plots.” As a scientist myself, these plots are always fascinating as they give you a glimpse into the future technology of agriculture.
Every year scientists, agriculturalists, and researchers are working to develop new technology to improve yields. These improvements are necessary to reduce agricultural impacts on the environment, and to keep up with the world’s growing needs of food, fiber, and fuel. But, before new seed, fungicide, pesticide, and herbicide varieties become commercial products farmers can purchase (check out our blog A Day in the Life of a Seed Dealer), they must be tested and verified. Test plots can be found all around the world as researchers investigate the effectiveness of a new product (e.g., seed variety, fungicide, pesticide, herbicide, etc.), or if a product can work in a new location. Each research question is specific, but every researcher has a goal of collecting data. The type of data collected is based on the research question. For example, if a research team is investigating a new seed variety, they might collect data on drought tolerance, wind resistance, pest and fungal resistance, and yield. While a research team that investigates a fungicide might gather data on yield, moisture, infection rate, and seed weight. Gathering this data is critical to the success of future technology that can be available to growers, because if the product doesn’t do well, it will not be approved for distribution.
Some of the data researchers gather can be done using simple tools like a ruler, scale, or image chart. Other data may need to be collected using complex tools that can measure fat (lipid) amounts or moisture levels within a single sample. Though data can be collected at any time during the growing season, many researchers collect at harvest, and test plot harvest requires specialized machines. Research scientists want to eliminate as much human error as possible. One way they can do this is by using customized equipment that is tailored to their specific research needs. Engineers, mechanics, and technicians work with a team to develop machinery to be used in these plots to gather data and to maneuver in a smaller area.
Harvesting a Test Plot
In the fall, crops are harvested using a combine. This machine helps to remove the seed (e.g., corn, soybean, etc.) from the plant material to then be sold to make other products like corn syrup or feed for livestock. The combine is a menagerie of simple tools. For example, when harvesting corn the combine will cut the stalk, remove the ear, husk the ear, and shell the corn off the cob. Depending on what is being harvested the head (or front) of the combine can be changed to fit the crop harvest needs. Commercial, or large scale, combines today can harvest up to 32 rows (~42 feet) at a time.
Just like a commercial combine, plot harvesters include the same basic parts. When harvesting corn they will cut the stalk, remove the ear, husk the ear, and shell the corn off the cob. Their heads can be interchanged to fit the crop that is being harvested. Unlike a conventional combine, plot harvesters are much smaller. Test plots are broken into small pieces of land rather than large acres in one field. This requires a smaller combine that harvests on average four rows at a time. When harvesting a test plot, they are gathering samples and data along the way. To do this, plot harvesters have more tools than a commercial combine. The tools increase efficiency while also reducing human error (a big positive for research!). Many of them will have built-in moisture readers, seed scales, seed samplers, external seats for a sample bagger, and automatic bagging systems to collect and package seed samples. Once harvested, the test plot seeds are sent back to the lab for detailed analysis to help the research team with their investigation.
Plot Machines in Iowa
There are several companies that engineer and design agricultural machinery to be used in test plots, and you don’t have to travel too far in Iowa to find one. ALMACO is in the heart of the Midwest, and the current town I live in, Nevada, Iowa. The first time I drove by ALMACO I was perplexed not only by how to say their name (it’s “al-may-co” if you’re wondering) but by the machines I saw.
As you peak through the large garage door that faces 2nd Street, you’ll see an iconic blue, and in the summer, what looks like a miniature combine. The combine structure is narrow, and the heads are small and vary based on the crop to be harvested. ALMACO’s harvesting equipment has been engineered to be used in fields of wheat, rice, corn, soybeans and more. One of their most recent harvesters, the R2 Twin-Plot Rotary Harvester, has a dual head and chamber allowing it to harvest two plots at the same time. From within the cab researchers (sometimes a graduate student or intern) can monitor yield, moisture, and the equipment can even be engineered to take samples of the seed automatically. These technological advancements can reduce harvest time and increase time researchers spend in the lab gathering more data and analyzing that data.
In the spring you might catch a glimpse of an ALMACO planter with large magazine cartridges filled with seed. The planter utilizes some basic technology that would be in a commercial planter, but also includes specific technology based on the research team’s needs. For example, if the team is investigating seed varieties, the equipment might have variable rate planting depth and specific chambers for each seed type (like the magazine cartridges). Or, if the research team wants to test fertilizer it might have separate tanks that contain each variety. Researchers and technicians can then program the planter to know what seed or fertilizer should be planted at any given spot in the test field. These technological changes increase efficiency and safety for researchers, reduce the risk of contamination, and reduce human error (again, a big plus for research!).